Eye Exam

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Visual Acuity

  • Use proper technique with Rosenbaum Card
  • Use proper technique with Snellen Eye Chart

Inspection of External Eye

  • Observe for ptosis, exophthalmia, lesions, deformity, or asymmetry
  • Inspect conjunctiva and sclera
  • Ask patient to look up, down, left, and right while inspecting bulbar surface
  • Wash hands before and after this portion of the exam

Visual Field

  • Position and instruct patient
  • Screen by confrontation, 4 quadrants, and neglect

Extra Ocular Movements

  • Position self and patient
  • Instruct patient
  • Demonstrate 6 sided cross or "H" pattern
  • Check convergence

Corneal Reflections

  • Check corneal reflections with penlight

Pupillary Reaction

  • Approach from temporal angle
  • Test bilaterally
  • Check for direct and consensual responses
  • Accommodation response

Standard Ophthalmoscope

  • Adjust aperture, diopter, and light intensity
  • Dim room light
  • Use right hand/right eye/index finger technique
  • Instruct patient to fixate on a point and elicits a red reflex
  • Follow inward thru the pupil to locate optic disc and allows time to focus

PanOptic Ophthalmoscope

  • Focus instrument by observing object across the room (10 feet away)
  • Adjust rheostat to maximum light intensity
  • Follow red reflex into pupil until eye cup contacts brow
  • Compress eye cup halfway to maximize view
  • Adjust focus as necessary
  • Repeat bilaterally

Corneal Reflex

  • Use a cotton tip applicator
  • Gently and lightly contact the cornea and observe patient's reflex


The UF College of Medicine Harrell Center